Análisis de las Experiencias Adversas en la Infancia en la consulta de Pediatría Social del Hospital Fundación Alcorcón

  • Elena Aguado Alba Grado en Enfermería. Enfermera Especialista en Pediatría. Hospital Infantil Niño Jesús
  • Lorena Isabel Álvaro Barrio Diplomada en Enfermería. Enfermera Especialista en Pediatría. Hospital Fundación Alcorcón
Palabras clave: abuso infantil; negligencia infantil; trauma infantil; maltrato infantil; adversidad infantil; experiencias adversas en la infancia

Resumen

Antecedentes. Las Experiencias Adversas en la Infancia (EAI) son circunstancias que afectan durante la niñez aumentando la probabilidad de desarrollar graves problemas de salud durante la infancia hasta la vida adulta. Estas experiencias, por su grave impacto en la sociedad, son consideradas un problema de salud pública, siendo actualmente objeto de investigación en muchas zonas de Europa, Asia y América. La detección temprana y el abordaje precoz, son elementos clave para mejorar la salud y bienestar de los niños.

Objetivo. Análisis de las EAI en los niños que acuden a la consulta de Pediatría Social del Hospital Fundación Alcorcón.

Método. Se llevó a cabo un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo, realizando el análisis de datos, extraídos previamente mediante una base anonimizada de las historias clínicas, de los niños/as atendidos en la consulta de Pediatría Social del Hospital durante el último año (noviembre 2018 - noviembre 2019); aplicando las categorías de EAI desarrolladas por Finkelhorn et al. (2015).

Resultados. El 49% de la población estudiada presenta un riesgo biopsicosocial elevado ya que presentan 4 o más EAI aplicando la escala de cribado de Finkelhorn. Entre los motivos de consulta más prevalentes se encuentran “comportamiento violento del menor”, “trastornos de conducta” y “sospecha de abuso sexual infantil”. El 78% de la población precisó derivación a otro recurso sociosanitario.

Conclusiones. el uso de herramientas de cribado, como el Cuestionario de EAI, permite a los profesionales sanitarios dar respuesta a las necesidades de los menores y sus familias, fomentando el desarrollo de una población más saludable.

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Publicado
2020-11-04
Cómo citar
Aguado Alba, E., & Álvaro Barrio, L. I. (2020). Análisis de las Experiencias Adversas en la Infancia en la consulta de Pediatría Social del Hospital Fundación Alcorcón. Conocimiento Enfermero, 3(10), 12-29. Recuperado a partir de https://www.conocimientoenfermero.es/index.php/ce/article/view/126
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Estudios originales